George Orwell lived during the Russian Revolution, so while enduring it, he wrote a novel about how
life worked in Russia. In his novel, Animal Farm, he uses examples of exaggeration, incongruity, and parody to
make it an allegorical satire of the Russian Revolution. Allegory is a device in which characters or events in a
story symbolize ideas and concepts. Satire is a genre of literature in which human folly and vice are held up to
scorn, derision, or ridicule. Animal Farm is basically a parody of the Russian Revolution, but on the setting of a
farm. Instead of overthrowing a corrupted leader, the animals fight back against their farmer, and once he is
gone, they begin to live normally without him. The pigs, known for being the smartest of the farm animals,
quickly take over.
One of the satirical devices used in Animal Farm is exaggeration. The way Napoleon’s dogs chase Snowball
off of the farm is exaggerated. Orwell states in Animal Farm that “…nine enormous dogs wearing brass-
studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed straight for Snowball…” (48). Orwell’s comment is
about Stalin’s KGB chasing Trotsky out of Russia. Also, the pigs’ living conditions in contrast to the rest of the
farm, as shown in a picture on page 82, is exaggerated. Orwell’s comment is about how Stalin and his men
lived much better lives than the rest of Russia. Orwell exaggerates the stupidity of the rest of the farm
animals, too. For example, on page 96, Orwell wrote about the farm animals rereading the commandments
and seeing that one has changed, but believing that it never changed. Orwell’s comment is that the general
population of Russia went along with whatever happened around them, without questioning. The
exaggerations used in Animal Farm help Orwell make it an allegorical satire of the Russian Revolution.
Another satirical device used in Animal Farm is incongruity, which is the state of being out of place. The
fact that the farmer, armed with a shotgun, is chased off of his own farm, by his own animals, is out of place.
Orwell’s comment is about Czar Nicholas II getting run out of Russia. Also, it is incongruous that Napoleon, a
pig, is walking around on his hind legs and carrying a whip. Orwell states, “It was a pig walking on his hind
legs” (116), and “He carried a whip in his trotter” (117). Orwell’s comment is about how Stalin controlled the
people of Russia. Also, the way Napoleon kills Boxer is incongruous. It is out of place that a van arrives all of a
sudden and takes Boxer to his death (108). Orwell’s comment is about how harshly Stalin treated the people
of Russia. Incongruity is needed to create the farm aspect of this story as close to the Russian Revolution as
Parody, which is when characters or events represent a different idea, is the final satirical device used in
Animal Farm. The pigs, who lead the farm, are parodies of the communist leaders, Old Major being Karl Marx,
Snowball being Leon Trotsky, and Napoleon being Joseph Stalin. Orwell’s comment is that the communist
leaders were relatable to pigs. Squealer is a parody of Stalin’s propaganda department, which is how Stalin
convinced the populous that he was right. Orwell’s comment is that the propaganda department is completely
loyal to Stalin. Also, the windmill is a parody of the five-year plan, which was put forth to keep the population
George Orwell’s Animal Farm gives the reader a different view on the Russian Revolution. Orwell wrote
this to express his bitter conclusion about communism and politics. The fact that he wrote this during WWII
shows that he may have wanted to show that you can still express yourself.